Saturday, 23 June 2018



Who does not know the name of Bitcoin, the most popular and costly Cryptocurrencies of the day. This is a kind of virtual currency. The foundation of Cryptocurrency is based on Blockchain Technology, which is a public ledger to share information in a trustworthy and secure way. The concept of this Technology has now spread from Cryptocurrency to various other fields like IoT, business process management, smart contract and many others.
blockchain and cryptocurrenc-cryptocurrency-blockchain
Thinking the future of this Blockchain Technology on various fields, National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning which is briefly called NPTEL is going to launch a free course. It is a joint venture from academia and industry like IBM. Almost all the top IIT (Indian Institute of Technology) like IIT BOMBAY, IIT DELHI, IIT GUWAHATI, IIT KANPUR, IIT MADRAS, IIT KHARAGPUR, IIT ROORKEE and IISc BANGALORE is the part of this course.
It is good news for those who are too much interested in Blockchain and also the cryptocurrency. The investor of such currency should know about the Technology behind it. The course is open to all. There is no restriction or age bar for entering into the course. This is an online course without any cost. If a person taking this course want the certificate only Rs. 1100.00(INR) has to pay as Exam Fees. The Examination will be held in India only.
Etherium-cryptocurrency-blockchain-technology-free course

The Instructor of this course:
Prof. Sandip Chakraborty, Ph.D and M.Tech. is a renowned professor in this field. He has received his degree from Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT GUWAHATI, INDIA. At present he is an Assistant Professor of IIT KHARAGPUR, Department of Computer Science and Engineering. He published around 100 research papers in many reputed or famous journals. Computer system, distributed system and mobile computing are his research fields.
Dr. Praveen Jayachandran is also a famous research staff member of IBM. He is also the inventor and manager of the Blockchain and Smart Contracts team of IBM Research, India. He worked in different fields of Blockchain Technology like developing an enterprise-grade Blockchain platform, development of smart contracts etc. He had his Ph.D from the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign and dual degree (B.Tech-M.Tech) in computer science from IIT MADRAS. In 2017 he was selected the Best of IBM awardees. This great personality is a member of the IBM Academy of Technology. His fame spreads world wide as he won a couple of best paper awards and has served in the program committees of many international conferences and journals.
Course layout:
  • First Week:

Introduction to Blockchain – I (Basics)

Introduction to Blockchain – II (History)
Introduction to Blockchain – III (Architecture)
Introduction to Blockchain – IV (Conceptualization)
Basic Crypto Primitives – I
Basic Crypto Primitives – II
   What is Blockchain, Public Ledgers, Blockchain as public ledgers,Bitcoin,Blockchain 2.0, Smart Contracts, Block in a Blockchain, Transactions,   Distributed Consensus, The Chain and the Longest Chain, Cryptocurrency to Blockchain 2.0,   Permissioned Model of Blockchain, Cryptographic Hash Function,   Properties of a hash function, Hash pointer and Merkle tree.
  •    Second Week:

Basic Crypto Primitives – II
Bitcoin Basics – I
Bitcoin Basics – II
Bitcoin Basics – III
Distributed Consensus
   Digital Signature, Public Key Cryptography, A basic cryptocurrency, Creation of coins, Payments and double spending, FORTH – the precursor for Bitcoin scripting, Bitcoin Scripts, Bitcoin P2P Network, Transaction in Bitcoin Network, Block Mining, Block propagation and block relay, Why Consensus, Distributed consensus in open environments, Consensus in a Bitcoin network.
  •  Third Week:

    Consensus in Bitcoin – I (The Basics)
Consensus in Bitcoin – II (PoW and Beyond)
Consensus in Bitcoin – III (The Miners)
Permissioned Blockchain – I (Basics)
Permissioned Blockchain – II (Consensus)
Bitcoin Consensus, Proof of Work (PoW) – basic introduction, Hashcash PoW, Bitcoin PoW, Attacks on PoW and the monopoly problem, Proof of Stake, Proof of Burn and Proof of Elapsed Time,The life of a Bitcoin Miner, Mining Difficulty, Mining Pool, Permissioned model and use cases, Design issues for Permissioned blockchains, Execute contracts, State machine replication, Consensus models for permissioned blockchain, Distributed consensus in closed environment, Paxos.

  •  Forth Week:

  • Permissioned Blockchain – III (RAFT Consensus)
    Permissioned Blockchain – IV (Byzantine General Problem)
    Permissioned Blockchain – V (Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance)
    Blockchain for Enterprise - Overview
    Blockchain Components and Concepts

    RAFT Consensus, Byzantine general problem, Byzantine fault tolerant system, Lamport-Shostak-Pease BFT Algorithm, BFT over Asynchronous systems, Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance, Three phase commit, View Change, Concepts and benefits of blockchain for enterprise, The Hyperledger Project, Actors in a Blockchain, Components in Blockchain design, Ledger in Blockchain.

    •  Fifth Week:

    Hyperledger Fabric – Transaction Flow
    Hyperledger Fabric Details
    Fabric – Membership and Identity Management
    Hyperledger Fabric Network Setup
    Fabric Demo on IBM Blockchain Cloud – I
    Fabric Architecture, Transaction flow in,  FabricOrdering Services, Channels in Fabric, Fabric Peer and Certificate Authority, Organization and Consortium Network, Membership Service Provide, Transaction Signing, Steps for network setup, Endorsement policies, Setup Blockchain networks, Experience blockchain network as different organizations, Deploy a simple application on IBM cloud.

    •  Sixth Week:
    Fabric Demo on IBM Blockchain Cloud – II
    Fabric Demo, deploy from scratch – III
    Hyperledger Composer – Application Development
    Hyperledger Composer – Network Administration
    Blockchain Use Cases
    Deploy a simple application on IBM Cloud, Marbles (asset transfer), Example smart contract code, client SDK code, Perform blockchain transactions using a cool UI!,  Setup a Fabric network on your laptop or VM, Install and instantiate chaincode, Run application on the network you created, Goals of Hyperledger Composer, Key concepts for the business service provide, Key development concepts – Model files, Access control lists, Transaction processors, business network definition, Key concepts for administrators, How composer maps to Fabric chaincode, Sample use cases by Industry, Business Problems and Participants, Communities in Blockchain network.
    • Seventh Week:

    Blockchain in Financial Service – I (Payments and Secure Trading)
    Blockchain in Financial Service – II (Compliance and Mortgage)
    Blockchain in Financial Service – III (Financial Trade)
    Revolutionizing Global Trade
    Blockchain in Supply Chain – I
     Cross border payments, Steller and Ripple protocols, Project Ubin, Know Your Customer (KYC), Privacy Consents, Mortgage  over Blockchain, Blockchain enabled Trade, We.Trade – Trade Finance Network, Supply Chain Financing, Blockchain for Trade Logistics, Global Trade Digitization, Blockchain for Container Management, Food Safety and Food Traceability, Supply Chain Orchestration.

    • Eight Week:
      Blockchain in Supply Chain – II
      Blockchain in Other Industries
      Blockchain in Government – I (Advantages)
      Blockchain in Government – II (Use Cases)
      Blockchain in Government – III (Digital Identity)
       Everledger, The Diamond Lifecycle, Addressing Supply Chain Fraud through Blockchain, Blockchain in Healthcare, Blockchain in Energy Markets, Blockchain in Media, Blockchain and Government, Preventing Cyber Crime through blockchain, Government Use-cases, Auditing and Compliance, Blockchain for Defense, e-Estonia: A Case Study, Digital Identity and Single Sign On (SSO), Principles of Digital Identity Management, Why Blockchain.

    • Ninth Week:
    Blockchain in Government – IV (Hyperledger Indy)
    Blockchain in Government – V (Tax Payments and Land Registry Records)
    Blockchain Security – I (Overview)
    Blockchain Security – II (Membership and Access control in Fabric)
    Blockchain Security – III (Privacy in Fabric)
    Indy for Digital Identity Management, How Indy Works, Blockchain for Tax Payments, Blockchain for Managing Land Registry Records, Security properties, Security considerations for Blockchain, Intel SGX, Identities and Policies, Membership and Access Control, Blockchain Crypto Service Providers, Privacy in a Blockchain System, Privacy through Fabric Channels, Smart Contract Confidentiality.

    • Tenth Week:
    Blockchain Security – III (Fabric SideDB)
    Research Aspects – I (Consensus Scalability)
    Research Aspects – II (Bitcoin-NG)
    Research Aspects -III
    (Collective Signing)
    Research Aspects – IV (Byzcoin)
    SideDB Motivation, SideDB Overview, PoW vs BFT Consensus, Consensus Finality, Consensus Scalability, Fairness and Scalability in Nakamoto Consensus, Bitcoin-NG: Working Principles, Key Blocks and Microblocks, Authority and Digital Signature, Collective Signing (CoSi), Shnorr Multisignature and BLS Signatures, Strong non-probabilistic consistency, BFT over Bitcoin – increasing scalability, Byzcoin Design and Performance.

    • Eleventh Week:
    Research Aspects – V (Algorand)
    Research Aspects – VI (Cross Fault Tolerance)
    Research Aspects – VII (Secured Multi-Party Computation)
    Blockchain for Science – I (Blockchain for Big Data)
    Blockchain for Science – II (Blockchain and AI)
    Strong Synchrony vs Weak Synchrony, Avoiding Forks, Transaction Neutrality and Frictionless Evolution, Asynchronous networks as network fault, Cross fault Tolerant (XFT) architecture, XPaxos, Multi-Party Computation (MPC), Fairness in MPC, MPC over Blockchain – ensuring fairness, Big Data and Big Network, Why Blockchain for Big data – application aspects, BigChainDB – The Blockchain Database, Data analysis over Blockchain, Logic over Blockchain network,Inferring Decisions through AI.

    • Twelfth Week:
    Comparing Ecosystems – Ethereum
    Comparing Ecosystems – Ethereum development tools and Quorum
    Comparing Ecosystems – Corda Part 1
    Comparing Ecosystems – Corda Part 2
    Concluding the course
    Architecture and concepts, Smart contracts and EVM, Additional/upcoming capabilities, Ethereum Development Tools, Motivation and concepts, Architecture, Transaction processing and consensus, Key features, Transactions, Corda ledger and smart contracts, Transaction Flows, Consensus, Notaries and Oracles, Final remarks.

    To know more Click Here.

    Sunday, 17 June 2018


     5G Technology and its bad Impact upon Us:

    From the ancient time man is looking for how to get an easy, comfortable and lazy life without doing too much work everything can be done easily. With this aspiration of man the World is standing in such a position that anything can be done with the help of Technology. But it’s also true that too much greed may lead us to a condition from where we can’t get back or impossible to get back. Here I am talking about the 5G Technology, the fastest wireless technology in the World.
    Expected Date:
    This 5G Technology may appear in our daily life by 2020 as expected by the Inventors. No doubt this is a good effort of our scientists or technologists who are fully involved in this project. We welcome their effort of making such a technology.

     Advantage of 5G Technology:

    This kind of wireless technology i.e 5G Technology will give us too much internet speed about 1.4 Gbps by which we will able to watch direct broadcast of football, cricket, Olympic and many others programme. Not only that but it will also connect many dev ices (which is called IOT). The problems facing by the manufacturer of self driving car will most probably be solved as the present 4G internet connection is not enough for this kind of technology. The self driving car requires flawless stable and high speed internet connection. 5G internet connection will help providing such connection to the self driving cars.
    It will also help us in medical field. Suppose, a critical operation needs some experts help or instruction and the doctors are away from there, 5G Technology or Internet connection will help us to come out from this kind of dangerous situation where a life is in critical condition. It will be possible for its least latency and high speed which the present 4G connection fails to give.
    2.In Automation industries:
    Automation industries will be improved day by day with the help of 5G Technology. The labor cost will be cut down and we will use their things in low cost. It sounds good for us.

    Bad Impact upon Us:

    But, can we realize the bad impact of it upon us as well as upon the whole living beings? The answer is probably no. Because we are dancing around , thinking that we will get very very fast Internet connection in our cell phone, laptop or computer which will help us playing 4k online games, watching movie, match etc.
    Can we know what we have to pay for it? Let’s have a small discussion that I realize. To give us such stable connection by using 5G technology, too much towers are required around us as it uses millimeter wave length which has less penetration strength or capabilities in comparison with 4G Technology. Its signals will come to the devices in beam form with small cell technology which the 4G or 3G already uses.
    Too much towers mean too much radiation as we already know that every electronic device that is connected to the internet gives out radiation. The more implementation of IOT will give out more radiation. The radiation that the 5G Technology gives out may have extremely bad impact in our life. Instead welcoming this kind of technology we should think of its danger. The Eco system will also be affected gradually for the radiation. So, be careful and cautious before using such kind of technology.
    We can’t ignore the Scientists or the Technologists who are making this will have too much responsibility towards us. They are also thinking a lot about the bad impact of it. They should be more and more careful and cautious before implementation.

    Tuesday, 12 June 2018


    5G Technology and 5G Internet:

    Who doesn’t love speedy internet? The answer is simply “Yes”. Therefore, there is no surprise that every major telecom operator in the world is working to make it faster and even faster. Cell Phones (Especially Smart Phones), watches, homes, and cars are increasing rapidly requiring stable internet connections. In order to overcome this we need a powerful wireless signal. To solve our problem of slow internet connection 5G is knocking at the door. 5G is a wireless connection built to give a better and stable connection to the devices that need it. It is similar to 4G and 3G that was introduced before but the major difference is its frequency. It’s not that only your phone and your PC or Laptop but many home appliances, door locks, security cameras, cars and many other devices will also be connected to the internet with the help of 5G. By 2020 it is expected that 20.8 billion devices will be connected to the internet. Now, approximately 6.4 billion devices are connected to the internet using 4G connection and it is connected to the world also. So, in future a lot more IOT (Internet of Things) will be connected to the web. According to the technologist 5G is the future wireless technology of the world. It will make our life more and more comfortable. The use of self driving car will have some breath for this technology.
    5G Technology & Internet

    What is 5G technology?
    Here the “G” in 5G stands for “Generation” that means 5th Generation Wireless phone technology which was technically started with 1G and generation after generation it is increasing as 2G, 3G and now 4G that is the latest one with LTE (Long Term Evolution) technology. 5G is inspired by this kind of LTE technology. It will give us more and better speed that will enable us to watch 4k video and Games using 5G internet as there will be a little bit of latency. In medical emergency doctor can take the help of this technology with which our precious life can be saved.5G wireless technology will work in 28Ghz frequency for which the wave length will be the shorter than that of 4G or 3G. As the frequency is enormous the wave length is technically lesser (It will be in millimeter) and for this there will be a drawback. The penetration capability will be lower than that of the previous 4G or 3G.But it will be overcome with the help of implementation of more tower and using more antenna in mobile phones. The research is going on rapidly to make it materialized as soon as possible.

    5G technology in India
    India is not lagging behind the other developed countries. India is also set up a panel constituted by three Secretaries of the Department of Telecom, IT and Science and Technology by the Department of Telecommunication (DoT) in view of introducing 5G by the year 2020. JIO Telecommunication is also trying to implement it with the collaboration of Samsung which is already invented a 5G modem which will give us 6GZh frequency as per company and it is in a testing position. If everything goes well India will also launched 5G wireless network very soon.
    5G launched dates:
    There is no prediction yet by the Government or any other telecom operator; but it is expected that 5G will sure be launched in India by the year 2020. United State is already making some trial around some places like Texas, Oregon, and New Jersey.

    Last but not least 5G internets will give us a better internet experience and will make our life easier. 

    Sunday, 10 June 2018



    All most all the people of the world know about the usability of computer in our life. The computer is now one of the essential things as it is used everywhere. When the usability rises it needs some additional component.

    Here, I am going to tell about such a thing. It is nothing but a gadget which may sometime become a very essential for a computer user. It is a kind of powerful external USB HUB. We all know that there is only four or five USB port available in general PC or sometimes more. But to do a lot of work at the same time too much port is needed for inserting some external devices. A powerful USB HUB can make it possible for us and make our experiences easier. It is also true that all USB HUB don’t perform well or properly.

    The image given below is a very good USB HUB made by Enter, a well known company for making cheap computer gadget. I am using it for one year and there is no problem created yet. It has seven USB Port containing seven switches and seven lights for each port. An external power adopter is to be inserted for supplying power. The data transfer rate is 480 Mbps which is really praiseworthy
    A Powerful USB HUB
    A Powerful USB HUB by Enter
    Features & Specifications:
    • Turn a single USB port into 7 USB 2.0 port.
    • Works seamlessly with all your USB 1.1 and USB 2.0 devices.
    • Supports “hot swapping” of all your USB devices.
    • Lower power consumption.
    • Makes power supply optional in laptop application.
    • Lets you monitor port and status with LEDs.

    System requirements:
    • Mac: Mac OS Xv 10.3 and higher.
    • PC: Windows 98, 2000, Me, XP, Vista and Windows 7.

    Tuesday, 5 June 2018


     Xiaomi Bluetooth Headset: 

    As per their previous declaration  Xiaomi launched its new Bluetooth Headset in China. The Headset will work in atpX lossless transmission with having 40 mm dynamic driver. Bluetooth 4.1 like feature will be available in the latest Headset of  Xiaomi. The color of the device is Black. No other color is available yet. The Ear Pad of the Headset is made op PU material; the head band is made of with silicon which will give it a spectacular premium look. There are switches around the Headset, by which the user will control it. Incoming call can be received with this button while listening song or watching movie. The selection of song will also be changed at the same time.

    An inbuilt Voice Assistant is also available in this Head Phone. Dual mic noise reduction system makes it more productive for user. The user will listen the song with full symphony.

     Xiaomi Headset with 4.1 Bluetooth feature

    There will 400 mAh battery and a recharge cable which will be packed in the packet for recharging the Headset also be seen. According to the manufacturer the user can continue listening for 10 hours at a stretch after the full recharge of the battery. The battery will be recharged fully within 2.5 hours only.

    The Headset has CSR 8645 Bluetooth Chip which supports audio coding technology.

    Prebooking is going on in China. It is expected that it will be available in India very soon. The cost will be around Rs. 3999.00 in India (Expected).

    Disclaimer. We can not guarantee that the information on this page is 100% correct.
    The Picture is taken from Pixabay and it is not the real picture of the Headset.

    Sunday, 3 June 2018


    Artificial Intelligence:

    Artificial Intelligence is the future technology of the World. It is briefly called AI. Almost all the country in the World is running after it. But there is too much controversy among the Scientist regarding this kind of technology. Some of them questions that this technology will destroy the human race as well as the World; but some opines that it will help developing us by providing many things like labour, security, privacy etc.
    Now, the question arises that what is Artificial Intelligence. It is in brief a kind of machines learning. A kind of programme that is implemented on variety of machines and act like that. If the programme is programmed to act like human beings, it work exactly like this. The programme works after gaining knowledge from human beings and automatically implemented it. How can it gain knowledge? It gains knowledge after properly observing human's behavior, gesture, smile, quality of speaking etc. If the programme is going to be implemented on a kind of machines which can act other works. It can then be programmed like that. All what the machines learns store them in its memory and act accordingly from its past knowledge or experiences.
    Artificial Intelligence

    Artificial Intelligence

    Here is a small example. We use smart phone and some smart phone has finger print unlocking or face unlocking feature. The phone uses AI. It has the power of face recognition . This power can unlock your phone because at the time of configuring your smart phone it recognizes only your face. So, only you can unlock it. It is really a good feature for our security and privacy.
    There is some reports revealed in some International Newspaper that The University of Southern California has made an experiment among 134 couple and came to the conclusion that Artificial Intelligence can can tell us the relationship between the couple and how much time their relationship will long last. It works only by observing their gesture, the voice and time of their talking to each other. The Intelligent machine will then tell us what is going to be happened among the couple. Is it not interesting? 
    Sofia, the first robotic girl, can perform a lot of duties properly without making a little bit of mistake with the help of AI. It is really a great invention of the modern World. It should be known to us that Sofia is now the citizen of Soudi Arabia and it is now the most controversial topic among the critic and the scientists. To them it will make a critical situation for human beings if it behaves otherwise or trained to act like devil.
    Sir Stephen Howking properly said:- " The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race".
    Disclaimer. We can not guarantee that the information on this page is 100% correct. The image is taken frpm Pixabay